Standing on a foundation of Pestalozzi, Montessori, Dewey and now Piaget, we begin again in the 1960’s in Brazil, where another revolutionary thinker named Paulo Freire was inventing his own theories about education. Frustrated by the poverty he was seeing throughout the depression, Freire showed through experimentation that literacy was the key to achieving true democracy, freedom and self-actualization. He coined a new learning model called critical pedagogy, where education was a tool to question any system of oppression, namely that of our current economic and educational systems. Friere was laying the groundwork for what we now call the “maker mindset” before the term existed, a sentiment that would resonate in Piaget’s work as well.
To resolve the teacher-student contradiction, to ex- change the role of depositor, prescriber, domesticator, for the role of student among students would be to undermine the power of oppression and serve the cause of liberation.